Never before has mankind changed so much, so fast but we still rely on outdated demographic stereotypes to understand groups of people. Now, there’s a better way to discover what matters to your target audience that you’re trying to motivate. A brand new big data tool that will change audience profiling for everything, forever. In this episode, David Allison, author of We Are All the Same Age Now, is the creator of ValueGraphics and has worked in advertising for over 30 years, explains how you can increase your efficiency and create better marketing strategies that are eight times more effective.

He’s going to explain the data that he compiled over the years that completely up ended traditional marketing assumptions such as profiling by age. By the end of this episode, you’ll know how to motivate more people, more often. Simply by embracing the power of value graphics.

David Allison: About 10 years ago, I guess when I first started the branding and marketing firm that I began with a partner, started with two of us working out of a small illegally rented condo in a building that I was living in and gradually we grew and grew and it became large and we had a specialty as a branding and marketing organization, we worked with large scale global real estate developers, resort developers.

Anybody who is doing anything that involved putting buildings on land and doing that all over the world. We did very well for quite a long time and then we had our good years and our bad years and after about 10 years, my original partner left and a new guy took his place and he came along, and we didn’t see eye to eye on where the future of the company was going. It was all very amicable. I essentially sold my share in the company to management and after 10 and a half years, of nurturing this company along, was sitting in my spare office going, “Okay, now what?”

I’d always written books and given speeches as a new business tool when I had this company, I was writing a little book that was of interest of the particular niche that we were working in. It’s a great way to get invited to conferences and conventions to be a speaker and you get up on stage and talk about your book for a bit somewhere in that room was my next client.

I decided it was a good idea and I should write a book for myself now.

The previous book I had written was about baby boomers selling their single family home in the suburbs and moving to you know, apartments and condos and more dense urban environments. We all know that guy who, “It’s time to sell my house and try to get a good price for it so I can keep some money in my jeans and just got to downsize now.”

We talked to a thousand of those folks and found out how it was going for them. What could we do better? I had baby boomers on the brain, I’d been talking about them writing about them, speaking with them for two or three years and this was about the same moment in our cultural history here in North America, where we all got really just deeply involved with this whole notion of what the millennials were all about.

Every article and every newspaper and magazine was about the millennials and every story on the news led with something about millennials this, millennials that, millennials are ruining this or millennials all want that. Or this great big hive mind of millennials that were supposed to change the world.

Nothing’s good enough for the millennials, there’s some sort of unicorn in the enchanted forest that we’ve never encountered before.

Perceived Generational Gap

Charlie Hoehn: Why do the baby boomers hate us so much?

David Allison: I think that it’s a very natural reaction, every generation looks at the generation coming up after them and goes, what are those kids thinking? Why aren’t they more like me? I think it’s a pretty natural reaction.

If you look back in time actually, there’s some funny stuff you can find online about you know, generations during Aristotle’s time, talking about the new generation coming around the corner and they’re irresponsible and they can’t work hard enough and they live with their parents too long and all the same stuff.

That’s been going on forever. Anyway, I’m sitting in a café one day and I’m reading The New York Times and there’s an article in there about the hobbies that millennials have because apparently it’s one big giant article about what you guys like to do with your spare time.

What was interesting was that all the stuff they were talking about, the women like to make their own clothes and make jam and they’re learning how to knit and they are into gardening and all this kind of stuff their grandmas did.

Hipster millennials are apparently all about making stuff. There’s a whole magazines and movements that they’re about maker culture, people who want to go back to making things, feeling disconnected from reality, not being able to actually use their hands to do stuff.

The millennial manner apparently, going to the tool lending library and you know, downtown Manhattan and getting the circular saw and making tables for their living room and doing stuff with you know, taking apart old motorcycles, all these, again, grandpa stuff. It was all the same things.

The baby boomers had just told me from our previous book that they were going to be missing when they left a single family home.

I thought, wait a minute, I could take the same article and just replace the word millennial with boomer and nobody would know. It’s exactly the same stuff. Why are we all hung up on this generational stuff?

I had this research team that I’ve been working with for a long time last couple of books, they’re based out of university in New Zealand.

I called up New Zealand as one does, and I said, I have this hunch that baby boomers and millennials are basically the same people. Since I’ve always been in the real estate industry, let’s see if we can do some research and prove that there’s a way to build condo towers, apartment buildings, neighborhoods, communities that work for all ages, instead of what we do now.

We have these communities, we’re all working very hard to make sure that diversity is part of what these communities are all about and then we put these mono culture buildings in the middle of them that are just for boomers or just for millennials.

“Why can’t we mix it up?”

Why can’t diversity come running through the front door and go right up to the top floor in the elevator.

We did, we went out and did seven thousand surveys across North America and the data started to come back in and two really interesting things happened, we found out that nobody wants to live in a building, if people are that are just their age, they all said that that sounds really horrible, the word ghetto came up a lot.

Charlie Hoehn: Really? Because, I mean, that’s what college is.

David Allison: Yeah, well, I guess you leave college and you’re like, “That’s the last time I want to do that. I want to live around all different sorts of people,” everybody was telling us. The other thing that they said that really blew my hair back was that they’d be willing to pay as much as 15% more, it’s an average across all 7,000 surveys, 15% more for a building where age doesn’t matter, but they wanted to know that they were going to be in a building where everybody had the same values.

That they thought the same things were important.

I thought, “Wow, when’s the last time you heard anybody offer to pay more particularly in the housing market.” We were all set to write a book about how we could do this, we could build this buildings, everybody was going to pay 15% more, I was going to be a rock star to my clients because I’d found a way to get more money for building this buildings.


David Allison: I registered a great name for this book, I still own and one day I’ll write that book because fortunately I got busy, I moved, I just sold my company, I had some renovations going on, I just wouldn’t think about things for a while.

Then it occurred to me that what we’d really stumbled on was that during the most traumatic, stressful, anxiety laden, purchase decision you’ll ever make in the course of your life: buying a new home.

Age didn’t matter, values did. I thought, wait, why would that just be about homes? Why wouldn’t that be about homes, why wouldn’t that be about pencils and shoes and briefcases and tea and vacations and banks and everything? I called New Zealand. Said New Zealand, it’s me again.

What if we could prove that this was everybody and everything, not just boomers and millennials and homes? What’s that going to take? They said, 40,000 surveys. We designed a survey, we launched the survey, we got our first wave of 40,000 and now because of our methodology, we continue to add to that, we’re up to 75,000 surveys and we’ve discovered two very unique and important things. Do you want to know what they are?

The first thing we found is that age is indeed irrelevant. The stats around it are remarkable, we have 380 different metrics in our database, across 75,0000 surveys now. It’s an enormous database and if on those 380 metrics which are about what people value what they want and need and expect out of their lives. We just isolate the baby boomers, they agree with each other on those 380 things 13% of the time, which means, 87% of the time, baby boomers disagree on everything it means to be a human being alive in the year 2018.

“How many millions and billions of dollars are we spending targeting baby boomers?”

You can’t target them, they don’t resemble each other. How can you target a group of people that disagree on everything 87% of the time?

Get ready for this: here’s the millennials. The millennials, they agree with each other 15% of the time. They had to win, they’re two points better than the boomers, but still, 15% means that 85% of the time, millennials disagree on everything.

How can we change the world for millennials when they can’t even agree amongst themselves?

The real losers were generation X, only got 11%. Basically we’ve got stats now to backup what we’ve all sort of expected and assumed to be true, which is that this generational stereotyping has got to stop.

We’ve got to stop pointing fingers and getting upset with each other based on how old we are.

It’s so refreshing to be able to just shut down all those arguments and say, “Listen, I don’t care what your arguments are, I don’t care what your points are, we have 75,000 surveys that say that this whole argument shouldn’t even be happening. Let’s figure out another way to talk about whatever your issues are, because it’s certainly isn’t about age.”

Demographics Aren’t Real

Charlie Hoehn: Right, just on a side here. You’re in the marketing world, you probably know this, teenagers, the category of teenagers was invented by marketers during the Great Depression, I believe, or around that time as a way to sell to that group of people.

David Allison: Yeah. That’s a great segue, thank you very much.

We, as humans and as marketers and business people, anybody who has to talk to people and tell people about something, whether that’s a not for profit or a government or an institution.

Whether you’re talking about ideas or products or services, we all have to talk to someone.

The way we’ve been figuring out what to say and how to say it is so deeply flawed that it’s remarkable we’re all still standing, frankly. The stats are now in, the data is now in, demographics are a ridiculous tool for profiling.

Demographics help us understand how we break up in segments and sort of how we describe who is in that group, but not how that group can be influenced, what that group cares about.

Here’s a good story, think about it this way. If you and I were sitting together in the same room and then in the next room to us, there is a hundred people.

“Now, our job is to go into that room and come back and describe who is in that room to each other.”

You’d go into that room and you come back and go, I saw a bunch of people and this is what they look like and this is what they seemed to be. Then I’d go in and do the same thing.

We’d sit down and all we’d know about the people in that room is what two can tell at a very surface level. We’d know how old they are, whether they’re a male or female, we’d make some guesses about how wealthy they were maybe, based on what they were doing or what they were wearing.

Maybe there were some kids running around in there so we’d get some guesses about maybe some of them are married and some of them have kids. That’s kind of the information we’d been using to target trillions of dollars in human resources and capital as we sit and make decisions about telling stories.

Every organization around the world.

What we don’t know about that group of people though is why are they all in that room? What is it they all care about? What brought them together in the first place. Why are they there? Why do they get up in the morning and worry about? What do they think about? What are their values? What do they want? What do they have in common regardless of who they are?

Values are the New Black

Charlie Hoehn: That introduces your concept of value graphics, you say in the book that values are the new black, let’s forget about this age stuff, it doesn’t matter. Explain to me what the world where we have value graphics in the forefront looks like?

David Allison: Well, I think it looks like a much better place. I think about it this way, everything in the room that you’re in right now, everything you’re wearing and everything you’ve seen since you woke up this morning, started its life in a boardroom somewhere.

In that boardroom, people sat around and said to each other, “Okay, we’re going to make this thing, we’re going to make the sweater this chair, this pencil.”

Whatever it is you’re talking about, who are we targeting and then the first question they ask each other, our target group, how old are they? Let’s say they decided that they are 18 to 24. Cool. Then business astrology kicks in and we go, they’re 18 to 24, they must like neon colors and flashy lights and should we just make stuff up about who these people are based on demographic categories and stereotypes from days gone by?

Maybe we met an 18 to 24 year old once, three weeks ago and so we figured that’s everything we know about that group. Instead, if the whole world started with those same conversations and boardrooms, where we all sat and said to each other, this thing we’re making, what are the people this for, what do they care about?

We made all our decisions about designing it, marketing it, branding it, telling stories about it based on what people care about. I don’t know what the world would look like but I think it would be a much better world and we’d have much more important objects and ideas and services in them that we all valued and that we all felt just somehow more essential and less frivolous and less disposable.

I think we’d have a less disposable world and a world based on things that were only created because they were created for people who were going to find them very important and very valuable.

Clearer Value Archetypes

Charlie Hoehn: Tell me, instead of having baby boomers and millennials and gen X and all that nonsense. What are some of the archetypes of values?

David Allison: Our database contains 40 core human values and this 40 values are based on long standing, preexisting sociological standards about how you measure the values of a human being.

We kind of built our own list, but it’s based on the world values index and the Bhutan – Did you know that Bhutan doesn’t measure their gross domestic productivity, they measure their gross domestic happiness?

We kind of borrowed this 40 values from a bunch of different places like this, we didn’t make them up but we kind of cobbled it together this list and if you know these 40 things about a group of people or about an individual, you start to have their values DNA.

In addition to those 40 values, we have 340 other questions that we asked about those values and about all kinds of aspects of life, what it is to be alive, what do you think about vacations and do you like sports teams and what’s your boss all about and how much do you hate your job and all that kind of stuff.

It’s a pretty robust database.

“I talk about it in the book like bubble baths.”

You think about a bathtub full of bubbles and every bubble is a data point and if you imagine yourself sitting in that bubble bath and in front of you are all these bubbles and they form kind of mountains and valleys.

The mountains are the places where for some reason, at the top of that mountain peak, there’s something that’s causing the bubbles to be attracted to that place in the bubble bath, and you’re getting this massive peak of data. What we’ve done in the book is we’ve identified the top 10 value graphic archetypes. The top 10 most powerful variables where the data seems to want to stick.

If we go back and look at some of those numbers I gave you around how boomers only agree with each other 13% of the time, millennials only agree with each other 15% of the time. We look at these groups of people, these archetypes, these value graphics archetypes. They agree with each other between 76 and 89% of the time on those same metrics.

We go from the low teens to almost the 90s in terms of how often they agree on all of those same characteristics, all those same things about what it means to be alive today.

The number one most driving, most aligned group of folks, the most important value graphics archetype is what a group we call the adventure club. We’ve given them all cute little names because we have boomers and millennials who are trying to replace those. We figure we need cute names for ours too. So the adventure club, they agree with each other 89% of the time on everything on the database.

And what makes the adventure club into a group is that they are, I guess another name for them could be the restless. They’re always looking for what’s different, what’s new. They’re going to be that guy who never eats in the same restaurant twice, they don’t go on the same place on vacation twice. They don’t buy the same pair of jeans twice.

They change their friends, they change their partners, they change where they live, they change their jobs.

“What’s next? What’s new? What’s better? What’s different?”

This is a prevalent archetype in society across all ages. There’s nothing to do with age in these groups. These people who fit into the adventure club are 70 and they’re 18 and they’re 42 and they’re male and they’re female has nothing to do with any of those things. It has everything to do with what they care about. So we know a lot of things about that particular group. I’ll throw one other as an example.

There is a group in there that is very heartened to see in the top 10 value graphics archetypes. Our cute name for this group is the environmental assembly. These are folks who believe that what’s going on in the planet right now are environmental catastrophes around the world our global warming issues are what is the most important thing in their lives. And we know all kinds of things about these group.

I will just give you a couple of quick examples. The environmental assembly, compared to their benchmark over the rest of the people in our database of over 75,000 people who we talk to, these folks tend to be a little bit better educated and they believe in the power of education. They are probably still involved in an educational institution somehow.

They may be taking continuing ed as an adult. They are working on a master’s degree, they doing something to improve their brains and they admit that they believe that the problems that are going on with the planet right now are—individual response is required.

That it is not going to be solved by mass movements and everybody joining XYZ organization and contributing $5 to an advocacy fund but it is about what I do today that’s what’s going to make the difference. So they are hungry for information, they want to learn. They believe in education, they want to be taught how they can reduce their carbon footprint. They want credible information about how they can personally help Mother Nature, help the planet get back on an even keel.

Interestingly sometimes the things we find out about these groups feel a little odd. They are interested in looking for information and they want to be taught stuff. They want to know how to improve things on a very personal level, their level of personal responsibility is off the charts. Of all the different ways that they could receive information their favorite is direct mail which seemed kind of odd.

I would have thought this group would have been all over social media and in fact their social media usage is very, very low compared to the benchmark study. So all of those environmental organizations out there, anybody who is working for an environmental organization, if you are trying to reach your constituents by social media, you are not doing the right thing. You need to be sending them letters.

Better Investments

Charlie Hoehn: You have a section in the book called The Five Ways Value Graphics Will Help Your Organization. What are some of those ways?

David Allison: Okay, well I think the most important one is just budget effectiveness. If you think about it this way, if you are spending money targeting a demographic audience and you are using business astrology to try and figure out who your audience is and what they are all about and what’s going to motivate them.

Let’s say you are talking to baby boomers just to keep them really simple. Baby boomers are only going to agree with anything you have to say to them 13% of the time.

So every dollar you spend, you have a 13% chance you are going to get somebody interested in what you’re talking about or what you’ve built or what you’re designed for them. If you talk to a value graphics profile, you are going to get people 76 to 89% of the time.

The generation X profile is 11% agreement around everything it means to be alive as a human being and the adventure club is 89% agreement around the same metrics. So what that means is one dollar spent targeting generation X, we got an 11% chance. You are going to hit somebody between the eyes. If we target the adventure club you got an 89% chance.

“So your one dollar is now eight bucks. It is eight times more efficient.”

So instantly just by going to that level of detail, your budget is eight times more powerful than it was the day before you read my book. Now, if we can get into the very specifics around a particular product or service or brand, we can make even better numbers happen. But I like to back out of that story too and just talk about how. Let’s say my data which by the way is the statisticians and the crowd might like to know that it is a 95% level of confidence plus or minus 3.5% margin of error. Which is more rigorous data than academics used for PhDs. And we have six times more data than you need for a PhD.

So this is unassailably true but let’s just say for a second that I am 50% wrong. I am half wrong and all I’ve managed to do is quadruple your budget. That is pretty good and if I am 75% wrong which there is no way and all I’ve done is double the effectiveness of every dollar you’re spending that’s still pretty good outcome.

I know that I am actually 95% correct plus or minus 3.5%, so we are going to get you six or seven dollars’ worth of impact for every buck that you are spending if you use a value graphics profile to develop your ideas as opposed to a demographics profile.

Charlie Hoehn: You need to be talking to Facebook’s ad team. Or anybody who uses their platform, frankly.

David Allison: Yes, absolutely. What this is really about is telling the right stories. We hear a lot of these days about storytelling and that is what you and I are doing today. We’re just trying to figure out what the right stories are here, but stories are ancient.

We’re hardwired to remember stories, and great marketers, great organizations of any kind, great communicators are the people who can tell a nice simple story that people remember.

“The problem in today’s world is that we’re bombarded with stories.”

So in order for your story to be the one that people remember, you need to make sure that you are telling your best story, and the only way to know what your best story is, is to do what I like to call speaking into their listening. You need to understand what people want to hear and the only way you know that is by knowing what’s important to them and that’s where value graphics come in.

We can identify the most important things in an entire audience’s life, not just an individual. We’ve always been able to do that.

I can give you a Myers-Briggs test and figure out what your values are, but having a database large enough to be able to do it for an entire target audience, this has never happened before.

Changing the Way Marketing Works

Charlie Hoehn: Talk to me about some organizations that are actually utilizing this in their marketing and getting tremendous results.

David Allison: I will give you a couple of interesting examples. I have quite a large footprint in the real estate development world because of my past career and my past company. So I have a couple of early adopters of this technology in the real estate world.

Here in Vancouver, there is a lot of new money flowing into the real estate market from Asia, particularly China, and there is a lot of people here who are quite upset about rising real estate cost.

I think this is not something that’s unique to Vancouver.

It is happening in cities all across North America. We are seeing people from away coming and prices going through the roof and in many respects, in many cases these people from away are the people who are not only buying condos and homes and houses and causing prices to go up but they are also people who are investing in these companies and who own these companies that are building these things.

So we have this fellow in town here, one of many. He is a real estate developer from China and the real estate development community in Vancouver, as in many cities across North America, Chinese real estate developers have a certain reputation and in some cases are in then and other cases it is absolutely not earned and this is one of these cases. So this fellow is very anxious to make sure that he wasn’t being lumped in with some of the negative stereotypes around Chinese real estate developers in a city where real estate development is a hot button for the entire population.

So we sat down and talked about this a little bit and decided that the best thing we can do is find out what are the values of the folks here who are upset about what is going on in the real estate development world and what did they see as the positive attributes, the positive values, the positive aspects of Chinese traditional culture.

So we were able to find three places where we overlap. Where what we are worried about is the same things that we believe Chinese culture is about. So instead of this group standing up and saying anything else, they are standing up and saying, “Hey here is where we agree. Here is the three things we agree on. Here is the three parts of what it means to be alive and be human that are a part of our traditional culture. These are the things that we’re bringing to the table when we build our buildings and when we do our work in this city.”

So they are able to carve out a reputation for themselves and a position for themselves.

“It is very, very different than their contemporaries.”

They have managed to separate themselves and to be thought of in a whole different light than the other folks who still have a lot of that negative baggage and stereotyping they’re trying to cope with.

My other great example is Wall Street. We have done a lot of work with hedge funds, we’ve done a lot of work with private equity groups and private equity banks and there is an industry that’s trying to figure out what their audience is all about.

Many of these guys are running these firms, they have made a lot of money, they have been very successful but they have come through a time where that industry has so radically changed. It used to be about what club you belong to and where you went for lunch and who your buddies were. Whether you golfed at the right place or their family had the right vacation home on the right side of the beach. These days, these guys are finding that the competition, people who are popping up and “eating their lunch” there are so many of them.

I had one guy sit me down and say, “You know when I got into these business there was about a couple dozen of us. Now there is a couple thousand of us. I don’t know what is going on but I can’t keep doing business the way I’ve always done it before.”

I go, “Yeah, you’re right”. So what the game is for those guys, many of those guys is trying to get what they refer to as institutional investors to pay attention to them. Institutional investors are people who sit around with other people’s money. Large amounts of money like pension funds.

And there is some guy inside that pension fund who decides that we are going to take 50 million bucks and put it in this hedge fund and we are going to take a 100 million bucks and we are going to put it in this private equity deal.

“Somebody is making those decisions.”

So trying to reach to those people and say, “Hey you should be paying attention to us,” that is their obsession and what they’ve been doing, uniformly in that industry is sending out pitch decks.

These are like an inch thick and they are full of charts and graphs that show how great our financial performance for my hedge fund or private equity fund was last year. The problem with that is, it’s no prediction whether you are going to be any good next year or doesn’t differentiate you.

So this poor guy who’s sitting there whose job is to hand out all those money and put it on the right places, he’s got the stack of three feet tall of these things sitting on his desk he’s got to wade through and make a decision.

It’s pretty hard for him to make a decision and it is pretty hard to be on the other side of that desk and be the one who is trying to get his attention—unless you realize that what we value determines what we do. It doesn’t matter whether it is business to business or business to consumer, you can still talk to these folks based on your shared values, based on their value graphics profiling and you can figure out what it is that makes them excited every day.

What they value, want, need and expect out of life and use that as a way to frame your story so that you could attract their attention regardless of your past performance or your future performance as a hedge fund or an investment vehicle and say, “You know what? We are all about family here. We are all about the environment. We are all about trust or we are all about loyalty or we’re all about the adventure club.”

Or we’re all about whatever it is that might be the thing that is right for that particular fund.

Those are the stories that they need to be telling. Those are the ways they need to frame their stories so that people are reacting to them as human beings not as automatons that are expected to process all of these reams of data and come up with some kind of decision.

Connect with David Allison

Charlie Hoehn: What’s the best way for our listeners to potentially connect with you and follow you on your journey?

David Allison: Well I have a big presence on social media. Of course, everybody does these days, so you can find me quite easily on LinkedIn. For the last two or three years as I have been working on this data, it’s been a three year process, getting the data and figuring out how to make it into a book and make it into a useful tool.

I guess about two years ago, I came up with this term value graphics. So I have been using #valuegraphics as a hashtag.

So anybody who searches #valuegraphics you’ll find me somewhere on Twitter, on LinkedIn, on Instagram, on Facebook, I am all over the place. What’s interesting, anybody who’s a bit of a social anthropologist though, you’ll notice if you go searching for #valuegraphics that the way I talk about this stuff and the terminology ideas and the names for the component parts of this whole new science of motivation has changed over the last two years as I have worked on it.

So you’ll find early stuff where I have different names for things. I left it there, it is a neat kind of archeological record and how this has come to be.

So the short answer to your question is I am all over social media. My name is David Allison. The stuff is called value graphics so #valuegraphics. The name of the book is We Are All the Same Age Now and it’s available on Amazon and

Let’s not forget websites, they still have a place in our lives so that is another way to reach me there.

Listener Challenge

Charlie Hoehn: Perfect and the final question I have is give our listeners a challenge. What is one thing they can do this week from your book that can have a positive impact on their life? Just one thing.

David Allison: One thing that listeners can do is to just realize that we live in a post-demographic world. That this world of ours today has nothing to do with who we are based on age or gender or income or marital status.

Rich people don’t act a different way than poor people. Poor people don’t act a different way than rich people. It is just so ridiculous when you sit down and think about how obvious this is. How many friends do you have who are exactly like you from a demographic perspective? Probably very few.

You have friends who are all different ages who are at least three different gender categories that we are talking about these days. There is all different ways that we can think about who the people in our lives are, but the common thread is what you value.

The one thing I’d ask everyone to do is stop thinking about the world in demographic terms.

“Change the way you see the world.”

Change the way you look at the world and think about the world based on what you have in common with people based on their values.

Whose values do you share? That is the way we need to move forward to make the world a better place, and you know what? I am going to stretch this point just a little bit further. This is a moment in history where there are so many forces that seem intent on driving us apart and creating camps and polarizing us. I don’t even need to mention them. Everybody’s got examples in their head of the ones they are witnessing and they are feeling.

I think that anything that comes along that gives us the opportunity to bind ourselves together into groups based on what we care about is something that needs to be embraced and so if my book and my work doesn’t do anything except erase demographic stereotypes from our lexicon or our vocabulary and our thought patterns and replace it with value graphic stereotypes, value graphic groups, I think all have contributed and I’ll feel like my life was well lived.